Cells are the basic unite of all life forms. They make up all living things.

Plant Cells vs Animal Cells 

Plant Cells:

- Have cell walls

- Cloroplasts

- Large central vacuole

Animal Cells:

- Do not have cell walls

- Lysomes

- Centrioles

- Vacuole


- Cell membrane


- Nucleus (contains DNA)

- Mitochondria

- Cytoplasm

- Ribosomes (free/attached)

- Gogi apparatus

- Rough endoplasmic reticulum

- Vesicle

- Cytoskeleton

Cell Speciallization and Organization:

Cell Speziallization- different cells of multicellular organisms are specialized to do certain things in the organism.  An example is the cells in a human's trachea which have cilia at the top of their serface that act like street sweepers that catch mucus, debris,and bacteria from getting into your lungs.

Cell Organization- when special cells, like a muscle cell, are organized into tissue, like muscle tissue, then into organs, like the stomach, and lastly into organ systems, like the digestive system.  Basically, cells make up tissue, tissue make up organs, and organs work together to make organ systems.


Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes 


- No nucleus

- All unicellular

- Smaller

- Simple

- Includes bacteria and archaea


- Nucleus

- Mostly multi-cellular

- Larger (10-100x)

- Complex

- Includes plants, animals, fungi, and protists


- DNA 

- Cell membrane

Endosymbiotic Theory:

The endosymbotic theory is the explaination of mitichondria and chloroplasts and their double-membranes. Basically, it is when a cell recieves entry to an other cell without passing through it's cell membrane. The cells' membranes fuse together and locks the foreign material inside and as a result, an intracellular vesicle is formed. 

Emerging Diseases: 

Emerging diseases are unknown diseases that show up in a population for the first time or a well-known disease that has evolved and bacame harder to control. Emergine diseases can be very life-threatening to humans because they have little to no resistance to them and the populations haven't developed control methods yet.   

Organelles of Eukaryotic Cells:

Nucleus- contains DNA

Vacuoles & vesicles- Store materials

Lysosomes- break down and recycle macromolecules

Cytoskeleton- maintain cell shape; moves parts of cell; helps cell membrane

Centrioles- Organize cell division

Ribosomes- synthesize proteines

Endoplasmic reticulum- assembles protiens and lipids

Golgi apparatus- modifies,sorts, and packages proteins and lipids for storage or transportation out of the cell

Chloroplasts- convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in food

Mitochondria- convert chemical energy in food to usable compounds

Cell wall- shapes, supports, and protects the cell

Cell membrane- regulates what enters and leaves the cell; protects and supports cell

Organells Specially Involved in Protein Synthesis:

Ribosomes- where proteins are assembled. Produce proteins by following coded information from the DNA.

Endoplasmic reticulum- the rough ER is the portion of the ER that is involved in protein synthesis. The newly-made protiens leave the ribosomes and get inserted into the rough ER and are chemically modified.

Golgi apparatus- modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other material from the ER for storage in the cell or release outside the cell. The finishing touches are done to the proteins here before they are sent off to their final destination either inside or outside of the cell.


Lipids- store energy

Carbs- main source of energy for living things (plants and some animals use carbs for structural purposes)

Nucleic acids- store and transmit hereditary information 

Proteins- control rate of ractions and regulate cell processes

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